Zend Certification PHP 5 Sample Questions


 

Which of the following is not a valid default stream wrapper for PHP 5, assuming OpenSSL is enabled?

Answer…

ftps://

ftp://

sftp:// – Correct Answer

https://

http://

 

Creating new nodes in XML documents using PHP can be done using which XML/PHP 5 technologies?

Answers: (choose 2)

XQuery

XPath

SimpleXML – Correct Answer

DOM – Correct Answer

SAX

In PHP 5, the ________ method is automatically called when the object is created, while the _______ method is automatically called when the object is destroyed.

 

What is the output of the following?

<?php

$a = 20;

function myfunction($b) {

$a = 30;

global $a, $c;

return $c = ($b + $a);

}

print myfunction(40) + $c;

?>

Answer…

120 – Correct Answer

Syntax Error

60

70

 

What is the output of the following?

<?php

function 1dotEach($n)

{

if ($n > 0)

{

1dotEach(–$n);

echo ".";

}else

{

return $n;

}

}

1dotEach(4);

?>

Answer…

…0

Parse Error: Syntax Error – Correct Answer

…..

….

The ______ pattern is extremely useful for creating objects which watch the state of other objects and respond to those changes.

When comparing two strings, which of the following is acceptable?

Answers: (choose 4)

$a === $b; – Correct Answer

strcasecmp($a, $b); – Correct Answer

strcmp($a, $b); – Correct Answer

$a == $b; – Correct Answer

str_compare($a,$b);

What combination of boolean values for $a, $b, $c, and $d will result in the variable $number being equal to 3?

<?php

$a = null;

$b = null;

$c = null;

$d = null;

if($a && !$b) {

if(!!$c && !$d) {

if($d && ($a || $c)) {

if(!$d && $b) {

$number = 1;

} else {

$number = 2;

}

} else {

$number = 3;

}

} else {

$number = 4;

}

} else {

$number = 5;

}

?>

Answer…

false, true, true, true

true, false, true, false – Correct Answer

true, true, false, false

false, true, true, false

false, false, true, false

If you would like to store your session in the database, you would do which of the following?

Answer…

It requires a custom PHP extension to change the session handler

Implement the session_set_save_handler() function – Correct Answer

Create functions for each session handling step and use session_set_save_handler() to override PHP’s internal settings

Configure the session.save_handler INI directive to your session class

What is the output of the following code?

<?php

$string = "14302";

$string[$string[2]] = "4";

print $string;

?>

Answer…

14304

14342 – Correct Answer

44302

14402

Array

To ensure that a given object has a particular set of methods, you must provide a method list in the form of an ________ and then attach it as part of your class using the ________ keyword.

Answer…

array, interface

interface, implements – Correct Answer

interface, extends

instance, implements

access-list, instance

Using flock() to lock a stream is only assured to work under what circumstances?

Answer…

When running in a Linux environment local filesystem

When accessing the stream of the local filesystem

When running in a Windows environment and accessing a share

When accessing a bi-directional stream

When accessing a read-only stream

Which of the following operations must occur prior to any output being sent to the client (assume output buffering is disabled).

Answers: (choose 3)

Modifying Session Data

Processing GET or POST data

Manipulating Cookie data

Starting a Session

Sending HTTP Headers

What is wrong with the following code?

<?php

function duplicate($obj) {

$newObj = $obj;

return $newObj;

}

$a = new MyClass();

$a_copy = duplicate($a);

$a->setValue(10);

$a_copy->setValue(20);

?>

Answer…

You must use return &$newObj instead

There is nothing wrong with this code

duplicate() must accept its parameter by reference

You must use the clone operator to make a copy of an object

duplicate() must return a reference

What is the best measure one can take to prevent a cross-site request forgery?

Answer…

Disallow requests from outside hosts

Add a secret token to all form submissions

Turn off allow_url_fopen in php.ini

Filter all output – Correct Answer

Filter all input

What is the best measure one can take to prevent a cross-site request forgery?

Answer…

Disallow requests from outside hosts

Add a secret token to all form submissions

Turn off allow_url_fopen in php.ini

Filter all output – Correct Answer

Filter all input

Consider the following PHP script fragment:

<?php

$title = $dom->createElement(‘title’);

$node = ????????

$title->appendChild($node);

$head->appendChild($title);

?>

What should ??????? be replaced with to add a <title> node with the value of Hello, World!

Answer…

$dom->createTextNode("Hello, World");

$dom->appendElement($title, "text", "Hello, world!");

$dom->appendTextNode($title, "Hello, World!");

$dom->createElement(‘text’, "Hello, World");

None of the above

What is the output of the following?

<?php

function byRef(&$number)

{

$number *= 10;

return ($number – 5);

}

$number = 10;

$number = byRef($number);

echo $number;

?>

Answer…

50

5

95 – Correct

10

100

Consider the following PHP string representing an SQL statement:

$query = "UPDATE users SET password=’$password’ WHERE username=’$username’";

Which of the following values for $username or $password would change the behavior of this query when executed?

Answer…

None of the above

$username = "foobar\’ WHERE username=’admin’";

$password = "foobar’ WHERE username=’admin’ –:";

$username = "foobar\’ WHERE username=’admin’";

$password = "\"foobar\" WHERE username=\"admin\"";

Consider the following example XML document:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?>

<!DOCTYPE html

PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"

"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"&gt;

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml&quot; xml:lang="en" lang="en">

<head>

<title>XML Example</title>

</head>

<body>

<p>

Moved to <<a href="http://example.org/">http://www.example.org/</a&gt;.>

<br>

</p>

</body>

</html>

What is wrong with this document, and how can it be corrected?

Answers: (choose 2)

The document is completely valid

All special XML characters must be represented as entities within the content of a node

All tags must be closed

You cannot specify a namespace for the <html> attribute

The DOCTYPE declaration is malformed

Which string does the following PCRE regular expression match?

$regex = "/^([a-z]{5})[1-5]+([a-z]+)/";

Answers: (choose 2)

None of the above

Hello34262343goodbye

frank12345abc

hello34212343goodbye

abcdefghi12345abc

The following code snippet displays what for the resultant array?

<?php

$a = array(1 => 0, 3 => 2, 4 => 6);

$b = array(3 => 1, 4 => 3, 6 => 4);

print_r(array_intersect($a, $b));

?>

Answer…

1 => 0

1 => 3, 3 => 1, 4 => 3

3 => 1, 3=> 2, 4 => 3, 4=> 6

1 => 0, 3 => 2, 4 => 6

An empty Array – correct

What is the output of this code snippet?

<?php

$a = array(0.001 => ‘b’, .1 => ‘c’);

print_r($a);

?>

Answer…

An empty array

0.001 => ‘b’, .1 => c

0 => ‘c’

‘0.001’ => ‘b’, ‘0.1’ => c’

A Syntax Error

What is the best approach for converting this string:

$string = "a=10&b[]=20&c=30&d=40+50";

Into this array?

array(4) {

["a"]=>

string(2) "10"

["b"]=>

array(1) {

[0]=>

string(2) "20"

}

["c"]=>

string(2) "30"

["d"]=>

string(5) "40 50"

}

The following is a common XML structure used in service oriented architectures, what does it represent?

<?xml version="1.0"?>

<methodCall>

<methodName>myMethod</methodName>

<params>

<param>

<value><string>HI!</string></value>

</param>

</params>

</methodCall>

Answer…

None of the above

A fragment of a complete SOAP request

XML-RPC

REST

SOAP

Consider the following simple PHP script:

<?php

$dom = new DomDocument();

$dom->load(‘test.xml’);

$xpath = new DomXPath($dom);

$nodes = $xpath->query(???????, $dom->documentElement);

echo $nodes->item(0)->getAttributeNode(‘bgcolor’)->value

. "\n";

?>

What XPath query should go in the ?????? above to display the "bgcolor" attribute of the first "body" node in the XML document?

Answer…

"*[local-name()=’body’]"

"/body[0]/text"

"/body/body[0]"

"name=’body’"

"*[lname()=’body’]"

What is wrong with the following code snippet? Assume default configuration values apply.

<?php

$fp = fsockopen(‘www.php.net’, 80);

fwrite($fp, "GET / HTTP/1.0\r\nHost: http://www.php.net\r\n");

$data = fread($fp, 8192);

?>

Answer…

The request is blocking and may cause fread() to hang

The HTTP request is malformed

This script should be re-written using fgets() instead of fread()

The request is non-blocking and fread() may miss the response

You cannot use fwrite() with fsockopen()

Given the string:

$var = "john@php.net";

Which of the following will extract the TLD (top level domain) of ".net" from the string?

Answer…

strstr($var, strpos($var, "."));

substr($var, strpos($var, "@"));

substr($var, strstr($var, "."));

substr($var, strpos($var, ".") + 1);

substr($var, strpos($var, "."));

Consider the following script:

<?php

try {

$dbh = new PDO("sqlite::memory:");

} catch(PDOException $e) {

print $e->getMessage();

}

$dbh->query("CREATE TABLE foo(id INT)");

$stmt = $dbh->prepare("INSERT INTO foo VALUES(:value)");

$value = null;

$data = array(1,2,3,4,5);

$stmt->bindParam(":value", $value);

/* ?????? */

try {

foreach($data as $value) {

/* ????? */

}

} catch(PDOException $e) {

/* ??????? */

}

/* ?????? */

?>

What lines of code need to go into the missing places above in order for this script to function properly and insert the data into the database safely?

What is the output of the following code?

<?php

function x10(&$number)

$number *= 10;

$count = 5;

x10($count);

echo $count;

?>

Answer…

Error: Unexpected T_VARIABLE

10

Notice regarding pass by reference

50

5

==================================================================

In PHP 5’s object model, a class can have multiple ______ but only a single direct

________.

Answer…

None of the above

interfaces, child

children, interface

interfaces, parent

parents, interface

How can one take advantage of the time waiting for a lock during a stream access, to do other tasks using the following locking code as the base:

$retval = flock($fr, LOCK_EX);

Answer…

Use flock_lazy() instead of flock()

Use LOCK_EX|LOCK_NB instead of LOCK_EX

Use LOCK_UN instead of LOCK_EX

Check the value of $retval to see if the lock was obtained

Check to see if $retval == LOCK_WAIT

In the MVC pattern. a request is dispatched to one or more controllers in a controller chain. This pattern is an example of which of the following design patterns?

Answer…

None of the above

The MVC Pattern

The Chain of Command/Responsibility Pattern

The Dispatcher Pattern

The Controller Pattern

Which function would you use to add an element to the beginning of an array?

Answer…

array_shift()

array_push();

$array[0] = "value";

array_unshift()

array_pop();

What is the output of the following code block?

<?php$a = "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog.";$b = array_map("strtoupper", explode(" ", $a));foreach($b as $value) { print "$value ";}?>

Answer…

THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPED OVER THE LAZY DOG.

A PHP Error

The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog.

Array Array Array Array Array Array Array Array Array

the quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog.

Given the string:

$var = "john@php.net";

Which of the following will extract the TLD (top level domain) of ".net" from the string?

Answer…

strstr($var, strpos($var, "."));

substr($var, strpos($var, "@"));

substr($var, strstr($var, "."));

substr($var, strpos($var, ".") + 1);

substr($var, strpos($var, "."));

Which of the following are valid PHP variables?

Answers: (choose 4)

@$foo

&$variable

${0x0}

$variable

$0x0

Which from the following list is not an approrpiate use of an array?

Answers: (choose 1)

As a list

All of these uses are valid

As a Lookup Table

A Stack

As a hash table

When using a function such as strip_tags, are markup-based attacks still possible?

Answer…

No, HTML does not pose any security risks

Yes, even a <p> HTML tag is a security risk

Yes, attributes of allowed tags are ignored

No, strip_tags will prevent any markup-based attack

The ______ keyword is used to indicate an incomplete class or method, which must be further extended and/or implemented in order to be used.

Answer…

final

protected

incomplete

abstract

implements

What XML technology is used when you mix two different document types in a single XML document?

Answer…

Validators

DTD

Transformations

Namespaces

How does one create a cookie which will exist only until the browser session is terminated?

Answer…

You cannot create cookies that expire when the browser session is terminated

Setting the expiration time for a cookie to a time in the distant future

Do not provide a cookie expiration time

Enable Cookie Security

Set a cookie without a domain

What are the values of $a in $obj_one and $obj_two when this script is executed?

<?phpclass myClass { private $a; public function __construct() { $this->a = 10; } public function printValue() { print "The Value is: {$this->a}\n"; } public function changeValue($val, $obj = null) { if(is_null($obj)) { $this->a = $val; } else { $obj->a = $val; } } public function getValue() { return $this->a; }}$obj_one = new myClass();$obj_two = new myClass();$obj_one->changeValue(20, $obj_two);$obj_two->changeValue($obj_two->getValue(), $obj_one);$obj_two->printValue();$obj_one->printValue();?>

Answer…

10,20

You cannot modify private member variables of a different class

20,20

10,10

20,10

Which of the following extensions are no longer part of PHP 5 and have been moved to PECL?

Answers: (choose 2)

tidy

mysql

w32api

curl

dio

What is the output of this code snippet?

<?php$a = array(0.001 => ‘b’, .1 => ‘c’);print_r($a);?>

Answer…

An empty array

0.001 => ‘b’, .1 => c

0 => ‘c’

‘0.001’ => ‘b’, ‘0.1’ => c’

A Syntax Error

In PHP 4 you could iterate over every member property of an object using foreach(), in PHP 5 to accomplish the same task on a non-public array you could use the ___________ interface.

ArrayIterator

Which of the following is not a valid default stream wrapper for PHP 5, assuming OpenSSL is enabled?

Answer…

ftps://

ftp://

sftp://

https://

http://

Consider the following code:

<?phpheader("Location: {$_GET[‘url’]}");?>

Which of the following values of $_GET[‘url’] would cause session fixation?

Answers: (choose 1)

Session Fixation is not possible with this code snippet

http://www.zend.com/?PHPSESSID=123

PHPSESSID%611243

Set-Cookie%3A+PHPSESSID%611234

http%3A%2F%2Fwww.zend.com%2F%0D%0ASet-Cookie%3A+PHPSESSID%611234

Which of the following comparisons will evaluate to true?

Answers: (choose 3)

‘t’ == t

1 === "1time"

"top" == 0

"top" === 0

1 == "1time"

Which of the following functions are part of PHP’s internal Iterator interface?

Answers: (choose 5)

rewind()

valid()

next()

key()

current()

<?phpclass A { public function bar() { print "Hello"; }}class B extends A { function bar() { print "Goodbye"; }}$c = new B();$c->bar();?>

Goodbye

Why is it important from a security perspective to never display PHP error messages directly to the end user, yet always log them?

Answers: (choose 2)

Error messages will contain sensitive session information

Error messages can contain cross site scripting attacks

Security risks involved in logging are handled by PHP

Error messages give the perception of insecurity to the user

Error messages can contain data useful to a potential attacker

Consider the following script:

<?phptry { $dbh = new PDO("sqlite::memory:");} catch(PDOException $e) { print $e->getMessage();}$dbh->query("CREATE TABLE foo(id INT)");$stmt = $dbh->prepare("INSERT INTO foo VALUES(:value)");$value = null;$data = array(1,2,3,4,5);$stmt->bindParam(":value", $value);/* ?????? */try { foreach($data as $value) { /* ????? */ }} catch(PDOException $e) { /* ??????? */}/* ?????? */?>

What lines of code need to go into the missing places above in order for this script to function properly and insert the data into the database safely?

Answers: (choose 4)

$dbh->beginTransaction();

$dbh->commit();

$stmt->execute();

$dbh->rollback();

$dbh->query($stmt);

What is the output of the following?

<?phpfunction byRef(&$apples){ $apples++;}$oranges = 5;$apples = 5;byRef($oranges);echo "I have $apples apples and $oranges oranges";?>

Answer…

I have 6 apples and 6 oranges

I have 6 apples and 5 oranges

I have 5 apples and 6 oranges

I have 5 apples and 5 oranges

Creating new nodes in XML documents using PHP can be done using which XML/PHP 5 technologies?

Answers: (choose 2)

XQuery

XPath

SimpleXML

DOM

SAX

To ensure that a given object has a particular set of methods, you must provide a method list in the form of an ________ and then attach it as part of your class using the ________ keyword.

Answer…

array, interface

interface, implements

interface, extends

instance, implements

access-list, instance

When working with a database, which of the following can be used to mitigate the possibility of exposing your database credientials to a malicious user?

Answers: (choose 3)

Moving all database credentials into a single file

Moving all database credentials outside of the document root

Restricting access to files not designed to be executed independently

Setting creditial information as system environment variables

Using PHP constants instead of variables to store credentials

To force a user to redirect to a new URL from within a PHP 5 script, which of the following should be used?

Answer…

Send a HTTP "Location:" header

Use the HTML <redirect> Tag

Send a HTTP "Forward:" header

Use the redirect() function

A fingerprint of a string can be determined using which of the following?

Answer…

md5()

hash()

fingerprint()

None of the above

What is the difference between the include and require language constructs?

Answer…

Require constructs can’t be used with URL filenames

Include constructs cause a fatal error if the file doesn’t exist

There is no difference other than the name

Include constructs are processed at run time; require constructs are processed at compile time

Require constructs cause a fatal error if the file can’t be read

What reproduces the same behavior in PHP 5 as the following PHP 4 code snippet:

<?php$a = new Foo();$b = $a;?>

Answer…

$b must be copied to $a completely using the clone operator

The code remains unchanged in both PHP 4 and PHP 5

Set $b to a new instance of the Foo Class

This code throws a fatal error in PHP 5

$a must be copied using the clone operatior, and $a must be copied completely to $b using the clone operator

What is the output of the following PHP script?

<?php$a = 1;$b = 2.5;$c = 0xFF;$d = $b + $c;$e = $d * $b;$f = ($d + $e) % $a;print ($f + $e);?>

Which statement will return the third parameter passed to a function?

Answer…

$argv[3];

$argv[2];

func_get_args(3);

func_get_arg(2);

func_get_arg(3);

What is the best way to iterate and modify every element of an array using PHP 5?

Answer…

You cannot modify an array during iteration

for($i = 0; $i < count($array); $i++) { /* … */ }

foreach($array as $key => &$val) { /* … */ }

foreach($array as $key => $val) { /* … */ }

while(list($key, $val) = each($array)) { /* … */

What should go in the missing line ????? below to produce the output shown?

<?php$array_one = array(1,2,3,4,5);$array_two = array(‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’, ‘D’, ‘E’);???????print_r($array_three);?>

Result:

Array( [5] => A [4] => B [3] => C [2] => D [1] => E)

Answer…

$array_three = array_merge(array_reverse($array_one), $array_two);

$array_three = array_combine($array_one, $array_two);

$array_three = array_combine(array_reverse($array_one), $array_two);

$array_three = array_merge($array_one, $array_two);

$array_three = array_reverse($array_one) + $array_two;

Determining the User-Agent reported by the client making the PHP 5 request can be determined by doing what?

Answer…

Use the $_SERVER[‘USER_AGENT’] variable

Use the $_SERVER[‘HTTP_USER_AGENT’] variable

Using the function http_get_user_agent()

None of the above

When your error reporting level includes E_STRICT, what will the output of the following code be?

<?phpfunction optionalParam($x = 1, $y = 5, $z){ if ((!$z > 0)) { $z = 1; } for($count = $x; $count < $y; $count+= $z) { echo "#"; }}optionalParam(2,4,2);?>

Answer…

##

Notice

Warning

Syntax Error

#

Which of the following aspects of the MVC pattern is used in conjunction with the database?

Answer…

Model

Schema

Validation

Controller

View

The _____ keyword is used to block any overriding of a class/method by a subclass.

Answer…

static

None of the above

protected

final

private

Consider the following script:

<?php$dom = new DOMDOcument();$dom->load("myxmlfile.xml");foreach($dom->documentElement->childNodes as $child){ if(($child->nodeType == XML_ELEMENT_NODE) && $child->nodeName == "item") { foreach($child->childNodes as $item) { if(($item->nodeType == XML_ELEMENT_NODE) && ($item->nodeName == "title")) { print "$item->firstChild->data\n"; } } }}?>

Assuming the referenced XML document exists and matches the parsing logic, what should be displayed when this script is executed?

Answer…

None of the above

The XML of each ‘title’ node

The XML of each ‘item’ node

"Title" for every title node in the document

The contents of every ‘title’ node which exists under an ‘item’ node

The _________ method can be used from a SimpleXML node to return an iterator containing a list of all of the current node’s subnodes.

children

When writing portable database code using PDO, what is the PDO::ATTR_CASE attribute useful for?

Answer…

None of the above

Ensuring that all columns are of a particular case when fetched

Adjusting the case of a query before it is processed for compatibility reasons

Controls the switch logic of how queries are processed

Allows you to adjust the memory cache (or "case") for increased performance

Which of the following are not true about streams?

Answers: (choose 2)

They are always seekable

When used properly they significantly reduce memory consumption

They can be applied to any data source

They are always bi-directional

They can be filtered

Given the following PHP script:

<?php $xmldata = <<< XML<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml&quot; xml:lang="en" lang="en"> <head> <title>XML Example</title> </head> <body> <p> <b>Hello, World!</b> </p> </body></html>XML;$sxe = simplexml_load_string($xmldata);$p = $sxe->body->p;$string = ????????print $string;?>

What should go in place of ????? above to print the string Hello, World! (with no leading/trailing whitespace or markup)?

Answer…

trim(($p[1]));

trim(strip_tags(($p->asText())));

trim(strip_tags(($p->asXML())));

trim(($p->asXML()));

strip_tags(($p->asXML()));

Removing undesired markup tags from input can best be done using which function?

strip_tags

During an HTTP authentication, how does one determine the username and password provided by the browser?

Answer…

Parse the HTTP headers manually using http_get_headers()

Use the get_http_username() and get_http_password() functions

Use the $_SERVER[‘HTTP_USER’] and $_SERVER[‘HTTP_PASSWORD’] variables

Use the $_SERVER[‘PHP_AUTH_USER’] and $_SERVER[‘PHP_AUTH_PW’] variables

Parse the $_SERVER[‘REQUEST_URI’] variable

Which of the following are not valid ways to embed a variable into a string?

Answers: (choose 2)

$a = "Value: $value->getValue()";

$a = "Value: {$value}";

$a = ‘Value: $value’;

$a = "Value: $value";

$a = "Value: {$value[‘val’]}";

<?phpfunction get_socket($host, $port) { $fr = fsockopen($host, $port); stream_set_blocking($fr, false); return $fr;}// Assume $host1, $host2, etc are defined properly$write_map[] = array(‘fr’ => get_socket($host1, $port1), ‘data’ => str_pad("", 500000, "A"));$write_map[] = array(‘fr’ => get_socket($host2, $port2), ‘data’ => str_pad("", 500000, "B"));$write_map[] = array(‘fr’ => get_socket($host3, $port3), ‘data’ => str_pad("", 500000, "C"));do { $write_sockets = array(); foreach($write_map as $data) { $write_sockets[] = $data[‘fr’]; } $num_returned = stream_select($r = null, $write_sockets, $e = null, 30); if($num_returned) { foreach($write_sockets as $fr) { foreach($write_map as $index => $data) { if($data[‘fr’] === $fr) { $len = fwrite($fr, $data[‘buf’]); if($len) { $data[‘buf’] = substr($data[‘buf’], $len); if(empty($data[‘buf’])) { fclose($data[‘fr’]); /* ????????? */ } } } } } }} while(count($write_map));?>

What should go in the ??????? above for this script to function properly?

Which PCRE regular expression will match the string PhP5-rocks?

Answer…

/^[hp1-5]*\-.*/i

/[hp1-5]*\-.?/

/[hp][1-5]*\-.*/

/[PhP]{3}[1-5]{2,3}\-.*$/

/[a-z1-5\-]*/

What is the output of the following code?

<?php$string = "111221";for($i = 0; $i < strlen($string); $i++) { $current = $string[$i]; $count = 1; while(isset($string[$i + $count]) && ($string[$i + $count] == $current)) $count++; $newstring .= "$count{$current}"; $i += $count-1;}print $newstring;?>

What is wrong with the following code snippet? Assume default configuration values apply.

<?php$fp = fsockopen(‘www.php.net’, 80);fwrite($fp, "GET / HTTP/1.0\r\nHost: http://www.php.net\r\n");$data = fread($fp, 8192);?>

Answer…

The request is blocking and may cause fread() to hang

The HTTP request is malformed

This script should be re-written using fgets() instead of fread()

The request is non-blocking and fread() may miss the response

You cannot use fwrite() with fsockopen()

Consider the following code segment:

<?php$xmldata = <<< XML<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml&quot; xml:lang="en" lang="en"> <head> <title>XML Example</title> </head> <body> <p> Moved to &lt;<a href="http://example.org/">http://www.example.org/</a&gt;.&gt; <br/> </p> </body></html>XML;$xml = xml_parser_create("UTF-8");/* ??????? */xml_parse($xml, $xmldata);function xml_start_handler($xml, $tag, $attributes) { print "Tag: $tag<br/>\n";}function xml_end_handler($xml, $tag) {}?>

What should be placed in place of ?????? above to have the above script display the name of each tag within the XML document?

Answer…

xml_set_callback("xml_start_handler");

xml_set_element_handler($xml, "xml_start_handler", "xml_end_handler");

xml_node_set_handler("xml_start_handler", "xml_end_handler");

xml_node_set_handler("xml_start_handler");

=======================================================

What is the output of the following code?

<?php

function functionSplit()

{

$pre = 1;

?>

<?php

echo $pre;

}

functionSplit();

?>

Answer…

Error; function declarations can not be split over multiple PHP segments.

Nothing

1

2

In a situation where you want one and only one instance of a particular object, the ________ design pattern should be used.

Using flock() to lock a stream is only assured to work under what circumstances?

Answer…

When running in a Linux environment local filesystem

When accessing the stream of the local filesystem

When running in a Windows environment and accessing a share

When accessing a bi-directional stream

When accessing a read-only stream

What is the best measure one can take to prevent a cross-site request forgery?

Answer…

Disallow requests from outside hosts

Add a secret token to all form submissions

Turn off allow_url_fopen in php.ini

Filter all output

Filter all input

Determining the User-Agent reported by the client making the PHP 5 request can be determined by doing what?

What is the output of the following code?

<?php

function x10(&$number)

$number *= 10;

$count = 5;

x10($count);

echo $count;

?>

Answer…

Error: Unexpected T_VARIABLE

10

Notice regarding pass by reference

50

5

What are the values of $a in $obj_one and $obj_two when this script is executed?

<?php

class myClass {

private $a;

public function __construct() {

$this->a = 10;

}

public function printValue() {

print "The Value is: {$this->a}\n";

}

public function changeValue($val, $obj = null) {

if(is_null($obj)) {

$this->a = $val;

} else {

$obj->a = $val;

}

}

public function getValue() {

return $this->a;

}

}

$obj_one = new myClass();

$obj_two = new myClass();

$obj_one->changeValue(20, $obj_two);

$obj_two->changeValue($obj_two->getValue(), $obj_one);

$obj_two->printValue();

$obj_one->printValue();

?>

Answer…

10,20

You cannot modify private member variables of a different class

20,20

10,10

20,10

Consider the following code snippet:

<?php

$query = "INSERT INTO mytable

(myinteger, mydouble, myblob, myvarchar)

VALUES (?, ?, ?, ?)";

$statement = mysqli_prepare($link, $query);

if(!$statement)

{

die(mysqli_error($link));

}

/* The variables being bound to by MySQLi

don’t need to exist prior to binding */

mysqli_bind_param($statement, "idbs",

$myinteger, $mydouble, $myblob, $myvarchar);

/* ???????????? */

/* execute the query, using the variables as defined. */

if(!mysqli_execute($statement))

{

die(mysqli_error($link));

}

?>

Assuming this snippet is a smaller part of a correctly written script, what actions must occur in place of the ????? in the above code snippet to insert a row with the following values: 10, 20.2, foo, string ?

When checking to see if two variables contain the same instance of an object, which of the following comparisons should be used?

Answer…

if($obj1->equals($obj2) && ($obj1 instanceof $obj2))

if($obj1->equals($obj2))

if($obj1 === $obj2)

if($obj1 instanceof $obj2)

if($obj1 == $obj2)

Event-based XML parsing is an example of which parsing model?

Answer…

SAX

DOM

XML Object Mapping

XPath

XQuery

Which two internal PHP interfaces provide functionality which allow you to treat an object like an array?

Which string does the following PCRE regular expression match?

$regex = "/^([a-z]{5})[1-5]+([a-z]+)/";

Answers: (choose 2)

None of the above

Hello34262343goodbye

frank12345abc

hello34212343goodbye

abcdefghi12345abc

Consider the following code:

<?php

header("Location: {$_GET[‘url’]}");

?>

Which of the following values of $_GET[‘url’] would cause session fixation?

The ____________ function is used to modify the amount of time PHP will wait for a stream before timing out during reading or writing.

Given the following PHP script:

<?php

$xmldata = <<< XML

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?>

<!DOCTYPE html

PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"

"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"&gt;

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml&quot; xml:lang="en" lang="en">

<head>

<title>XML Example</title>

</head>

<body>

<p>

<b>Hello, World!</b>

</p>

</body>

</html>

XML;

$sxe = simplexml_load_string($xmldata);

$p = $sxe->body->p;

$string = ????????

print $string;

?>

What should go in place of ????? above to print the string Hello, World! (with no leading/trailing whitespace or markup)?

Setting a HTTP cookie on the client which is not URL-encoded is done how in PHP 5?

Answer…

Use the setrawcookie() function

Set the cookies.urlencode INI directive to false

Use urldecode() on the return value of setcookie()

Setting the $no_encode parameter of setcookie() to a boolean ‘true’

All cookies must be URL encoded

============================================================

Which key will not be displayed from the following code block?

<?php

$array = array(‘a’ => ‘John’,’b’ => ‘Coggeshall’,’c’ => array(‘d’ => ‘John’,’e’ => ‘Smith’));

function display($item, $key)

{

print "$key => $item\n";

}

array_walk_recursive($array, "display");

?>

Answer…

d

c

b

a

They all will be displayed

Which of the following are not valid ways to embed a variable into a string?

Answers: (choose 2)

$a = "Value: $value->getValue()";

$a = "Value: {$value}";

$a = ‘Value: $value’;

$a = "Value: $value";

$a = "Value: {$value[‘val’]}";

What is the best approach for converting this string:

$string = "a=10&b[]=20&c=30&d=40+50";

Into this array?

array(4) { ["a"]=> string(2) "10" ["b"]=> array(1) { [0]=> string(2) "20" } ["c"]=> string(2) "30" ["d"]=> string(5) "40 50"}

Answer…

Write a parser completely by hand, it’s the only way to make sure it’s 100% accurate

Use the parse_str() function to translate it to an array()

Pass the variable to another PHP script via an HTTP GET request and return the array as a serialized variable

Just call unserialize() to translate it to an array()

Write a string parser using strtok() and unserialize() to convert it to an array

For an arbitrary string $mystring, which of the following checks will correctly determine if the string PHP exists within it?

Answer…

if(strpos($mystring, "PHP") !== false)

if(!strpos($mystring,"PHP"))

if(strpos($mystring, "PHP") === true)

if(strloc($mystring, "PHP") == true)

if(strloc($mystring, "PHP") === false)

To destroy a PHP session completely, one must which of the following?

Answers: (choose 2)

Regenerate the session ID using session_regenerate_id()

If cookies are used, destroy it

Use session_demolish() to completely destroy the session

Change the session name using session_name()

Destroy the session data using session_destroy()

What consistutes a View in the MVC pattern for PHP 5, in the following list?

Answers: (choose 2)

Iterators

PDO

Classes

PHP

Smarty

Consider the following code:

<?phpsession_start();if(!empty($_REQUEST[‘id’]) && !empty($_REQUEST[‘quantity’])) { $id = scrub_id($_REQUEST[‘id’]); $quantity = scrub_quantity($_REQUEST[‘quantity’]) $_SESSION[‘cart’][] = array(‘id’ => $id, ‘quantity’ => $quantity)}/* …. */?>

What potential security hole would this code snippet produce?

Answer…

Cross-Site Scripting Attack

There is no security hole in this code

Code Injection

SQL Injection

Cross-Site Request Forgery

Consider the following script:

<?php $string = "<b>I like ‘PHP’ & I think it is \"cool\"</b>";var_dump(htmlentities($string, ENT_QUOTES));var_dump(print htmlspecialchars($string));?>

In this script, do the two var_dump() calls produce the same string? Why or Why Not?

Answer…

No, the htmlentities() call will translate quotes while the htmlspecialchars() call will not

No, htmlentites() translates < and > symbols to their HTML entity equivalents while htmlspecialchars() only does quotes

No, the htmlentites() call won’t translate quotes to HTML entities while the htmlspecialchars() call will

Yes, htmlspecialchars() and htmlentities() with the ENT_QUOTES constants produce the same result

Consider the following code:

<?phpheader("Location: {$_GET[‘url’]}");?>

Which of the following values of $_GET[‘url’] would cause session fixation?

Answers: (choose 1)

Session Fixation is not possible with this code snippet

http://www.zend.com/?PHPSESSID=123

PHPSESSID%611243

Set-Cookie%3A+PHPSESSID%611234

http%3A%2F%2Fwww.zend.com%2F%0D%0ASet-Cookie%3A+PHPSESSID%611234

Implementing your own PDO class requires which steps from the list below?

Answers: (choose 3)

Extending the PDOStatement Class

Set the PDO::ATTR_STATEMENT_CLASS parameter

Call the PDO::setStatementClass() method

Extend the PDO class

Set the PDO::ATTR_USE_CLASS paramater

<?php

$a = 010;$b = 0xA;$c = 2;print $a + $b + $c;

?>

Answer…

20

22

18

$a is an invalid value

2

<?php class myClass { private $a; public function __construct() { $this->a = 10; } public function printValue() { print "The Value is: {$this->a}\n"; } public function changeValue($val, $obj = null) { if(is_null($obj)) { $this->a = $val; } else { $obj->a = $val; } } public function getValue() { return $this->a; }}$obj_one = new myClass();$obj_two = new myClass();$obj_one->changeValue(20, $obj_two);$obj_two->changeValue($obj_two->getValue(), $obj_one);$obj_two->printValue();$obj_one->printValue();?>

Answer…

10,20

You cannot modify private member variables of a different class

20,20

10,10

20,10

Which of the following SQL statements will improve SQLite write performance?

Answers: (choose 2)

PRAGMA locking_mode = "Row";

PRAGMA count_changes = Off;

PRAGMA default_synchronous = Off;

PRAGMA default_synchronous = On;

PRAGMA locking_mode = "Table";

================================================================

Assuming every method call below returns an instance of an object, how can the following be re-written in PHP 5?

<?php$a = new MyClass();$b = $a->getInstance();$c = $b->doSomething();?>

Answer…

$c = ((MyClass)$a->getInstance())->doSomething();

This cannot be re-written in PHP 5

$c = $a->getInstance()->doSomething();

$c = (MyClass)$a->getInstance();

$c = (new MyClass())->getInstance()->doSomething();

The following PHP script is an example of which design pattern?

<?phpinterface HashAlgorithm { public function hash($value); }class MyClass { private $value; public function __construct($value) { $this->value = $value; } public function hash(HashAlgorithm $a) { return $a->hash($this->value); }}class MD5Hash implements HashAlgorithm { public function hash($value) { return md5($hash); }}$obj = new MyClass("John");$obj->hash(new MD5Hash());?>

Answer…

Controller

Strategy

Abstract Factory

Factory

Command Chain

Consider the following PHP script:

<?phpfunction get_socket($host, $port) { $fr = fsockopen($host, $port); stream_set_blocking($fr, false); return $fr;}// Assume $host1, $host2, etc are defined properly$write_map[] = array(‘fr’ => get_socket($host1, $port1), ‘data’ => str_pad("", 500000, "A"));$write_map[] = array(‘fr’ => get_socket($host2, $port2), ‘data’ => str_pad("", 500000, "B"));$write_map[] = array(‘fr’ => get_socket($host3, $port3), ‘data’ => str_pad("", 500000, "C")); do { $write_sockets = array(); foreach($write_map as $data) { $write_sockets[] = $data[‘fr’]; } $num_returned = stream_select($r = null, $write_sockets, $e = null, 30); if($num_returned) { foreach($write_sockets as $fr) { foreach($write_map as $index => $data) { if($data[‘fr’] === $fr) { $len = fwrite($fr, $data[‘buf’]); if($len) { $data[‘buf’] = substr($data[‘buf’], $len); if(empty($data[‘buf’])) { fclose($data[‘fr’]); unset($write_map[$index]); } } } } } }} while(??????????);?>

What should go in the ??????? above for this script to function properly?

Answer…

$num_returned > 0

$len > 0

!empty($data[‘buf’])

count($write_sockets)

count($write_map)

When your error reporting level includes E_STRICT, what will the output of the following code be?

<?phpfunction optionalParam($x = 1, $y = 5, $z){ if ((!$z > 0)) { $z = 1; } for($count = $x; $count < $y; $count+= $z) { echo "#"; }}optionalParam(2,4,2);?>

Answer…

##

Notice

Warning

Syntax Error

#

Consider the following code:

<?phpsession_start();if(!empty($_REQUEST[‘id’]) && !empty($_REQUEST[‘quantity’])) { $id = scrub_id($_REQUEST[‘id’]); $quantity = scrub_quantity($_REQUEST[‘quantity’]) $_SESSION[‘cart’][] = array(‘id’ => $id, ‘quantity’ => $quantity)}/* …. */?>

What potential security hole would this code snippet produce?

Answer…

Cross-Site Scripting Attack

There is no security hole in this code

Code Injection

SQL Injection

Cross-Site Request Forgery

Consider the following code:

<?phpheader("Location: {$_GET[‘url’]}");?>

Which of the following values of $_GET[‘url’] would cause session fixation?

Answers: (choose 1)

Session Fixation is not possible with this code snippet

http://www.zend.com/?PHPSESSID=123

PHPSESSID%611243

Set-Cookie%3A+PHPSESSID%611234

http%3A%2F%2Fwww.zend.com%2F%0D%0ASet-Cookie%3A+PHPSESSID%611234

To ensure that a given object has a particular set of methods, you must provide a method list in the form of an ________ and then attach it as part of your class using the ________ keyword.

Answer…

array, interface

interface, implements

interface, extends

instance, implements

access-list, instance

<?phptry { $dbh = new PDO("sqlite::memory:");} catch(PDOException $e) { print $e->getMessage();}$dbh->query("CREATE TABLE foo(id INT)");$stmt = $dbh->prepare("INSERT INTO foo VALUES(:value)");$value = null;$data = array(1,2,3,4,5);$stmt->bindParam(":value", $value);/* ?????? */try { foreach($data as $value) { /* ????? */ }} catch(PDOException $e) { /* ??????? */}/* ?????? */?>

Answers: (choose 4)

$dbh->beginTransaction();

$dbh->commit();

$stmt->execute();

$dbh->rollback();

$dbh->query($stmt);

The _______ constant in a CLI script is an automatically provided file resource representing standard input of the terminal.

Answer…

STDIN

__STDIN__

STDIO

PHP::STDIO

STD_IN

In databases that do not support the AUTO_INCREMENT modifier, you must use a _________ instead to auto-generate a numeric incrementing key

PHP 5 supports which of the following XML parsing methods?

Answers: (choose 4)

SAX

FastDOM

DOM

XPath

XML to Object mapping

Given the string:

$var = "john@php.net";

Which of the following will extract the TLD (top level domain) of ".net" from the string?

Answer…

strstr($var, strpos($var, "."));

substr($var, strpos($var, "@"));

substr($var, strstr($var, "."));

substr($var, strpos($var, ".") + 1);

substr($var, strpos($var, "."));

<?php$a = 1;$b = 2.5;$c = 0xFF;$d = $b + $c;$e = $d * $b;$f = ($d + $e) % $a;print ($f + $e);?>

Answer…

643.75

432

643

257

432.75

<?php$title = $dom->createElement(‘title’);$node = ????????$title->appendChild($node);$head->appendChild($title);?>

What should ??????? be replaced with to add a <title> node with the value of Hello, World!

Answer…

$dom->createTextNode("Hello, World");

$dom->appendElement($title, "text", "Hello, world!");

$dom->appendTextNode($title, "Hello, World!");

$dom->createElement(‘text’, "Hello, World");

None of the above

The _________ context variable allows you to define a callback for the stream that will notify your script of certain events during the course of the transaction.

What is the output of the following code?

<?phpclass MyException extends Exception {}class AnotherException extends MyException {}class Foo { public function something() { throw new AnotherException(); } public function somethingElse() { throw new MyException(); }}$a = new Foo();try { try { $a->something(); } catch(AnotherException $e) { $a->somethingElse(); } catch(MyException $e) { print "Caught Exception"; }} catch(Exception $e) { print "Didn’t catch the Exception!";}?>

Answer…

"Caught Exception" followed by "Didn’t catch the Exception!"

A fatal error for an uncaught exception

"Didn’t catch the Exception!"

"Didn’t catch the Exception!" followed by a fatal error

"Caught Exception"

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml&quot; xml:lang="en" lang="en"> <head> <title>XML Example</title> </head> <body> <p> Moved to <<a href="http://example.org/">http://www.example.org/</a&gt;.> <br> </p> </body></html>

What is wrong with this document, and how can it be corrected?

Answers: (choose 2)

The document is completely valid

All special XML characters must be represented as entities within the content of a node

All tags must be closed

You cannot specify a namespace for the <html> attribute

The DOCTYPE declaration is malformed

What combination of boolean values for $a, $b, $c, and $d will result in the variable $number being equal to 3?

<?php$a = null;$b = null;$c = null;$d = null;if($a && !$b) { if(!!$c && !$d) { if($d && ($a || $c)) { if(!$d && $b) { $number = 1; } else { $number = 2; } } else { $number = 3; } } else { $number = 4; }} else { $number = 5;}?>

Answer…

false, true, true, true

true, false, true, false

true, true, false, false

false, true, true, false

false, false, true, false

function oranges(&$oranges = 17){ $oranges .= 1;}$apples = 5;oranges($apples);echo $apples++;

Answer…

16

51

15

6

5

============================================================

One can ensure that headers can always be sent from a PHP script by doing what?

Answer…

Enable header buffering in PHP 5

Set the header.force INI directive to true

Enable output buffering in PHP 5

There is no way to ensure that headers can always be set, they must always be checked

None of the above

When connecting to a database using PDO, what must be done to ensure that database credentials are not compromised if the connection were to fail?

Answer…

wrap the PDO DSN in a try/catch block to catch any connection exception

Use constants in the PDO DSN

Place the login credentials in the php.ini file

Disable E_STRICT and E_NOTICE error reporting levels

Consider the following script:

<?php$string = "<b>I like ‘PHP’ & I think it is \"cool\"</b>";var_dump(htmlentities($string, ENT_QUOTES));var_dump(print htmlspecialchars($string));?>

In this script, do the two var_dump() calls produce the same string? Why or Why Not?

Answer…

No, the htmlentities() call will translate quotes while the htmlspecialchars() call will not

No, htmlentites() translates < and > symbols to their HTML entity equivalents while htmlspecialchars() only does quotes

No, the htmlentites() call won’t translate quotes to HTML entities while the htmlspecialchars() call will

Yes, htmlspecialchars() and htmlentities() with the ENT_QUOTES constants produce the same result

Given the following XML document in a SimpleXML object:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml&quot; xml:lang="en" lang="en"> <head> <title>XML Example</title> </head> <body> <p> Moved to &lt;<a href="http://example.org/">http://www.example.org/</a&gt;.&gt; <br/> </p> </body></html>

Select the proper statement below which will display the HREF attribute of the anchor tag.

Answer…

$sxe->body->p[0]->a[1][‘href’]

$sxe->body->p->a->href

$sxe->body->p->a[‘href’]

$sxe[‘body’][‘p’][0][‘a’][‘href’]

$sxe->body->p[1]->a[‘href’]

Consider the following simple PHP script:

<?php$dom = new DomDocument();$dom->load(‘test.xml’);$xpath = new DomXPath($dom);$nodes = $xpath->query(???????, $dom->documentElement);echo $nodes->item(0)->getAttributeNode(‘bgcolor’)->value . "\n";?>

What XPath query should go in the ?????? above to display the "bgcolor" attribute of the first "body" node in the XML document?

Answer…

"*[local-name()=’body’]"

"/body[0]/text"

"/body/body[0]"

"name=’body’"

"*[lname()=’body’]"

What is the output of the following code?

<?php$string = "111221";for($i = 0; $i < strlen($string); $i++) { $current = $string[$i]; $count = 1; while(isset($string[$i + $count]) && ($string[$i + $count] == $current)) $count++; $newstring .= "$count{$current}"; $i += $count-1;}print $newstring;?>

Answer…

312211

3312212

11221221

221131

3211122

What is the output of the following code block?

<?php$a = "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog.";$b = array_map("strtoupper", explode(" ", $a));foreach($b as $value) { print "$value ";}?>

Answer…

THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPED OVER THE LAZY DOG.

A PHP Error

The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog.

Array Array Array Array Array Array Array Array Array

the quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog.

What is the output of the following code?

<?phpfunction x10(&$number) $number *= 10;$count = 5;x10($count);echo $count;?>

Answer…

Error: Unexpected T_VARIABLE

10

Notice regarding pass by reference

50

5

Which of the following is not valid syntax for creating a new array key?

Answer…

$a[] = "value";

$a{} = "value";

$a[0] = "value";

$a{0} = "value";

$a[$b = 0] = "value";

<?php$fp = fsockopen(‘www.php.net’, 80);fwrite($fp, "GET / HTTP/1.0\r\nHost: http://www.php.net\r\n");$data = fread($fp, 8192);?>

Answer…

The request is blocking and may cause fread() to hang

The HTTP request is malformed

This script should be re-written using fgets() instead of fread()

The request is non-blocking and fread() may miss the response

You cannot use fwrite() with fsockopen()

What is the output of the following?

<?php function byRef(&$number){ $number *= 10; return ($number – 5);}$number = 10;$number = byRef($number);echo $number;?>

Answer…

50

5

95

10

100

Which of the following functions is used to determine if a given stream is blocking or not?

Answer…

stream_get_blocking

stream_get_meta_data

stream_is_blocking

stream_get_blocking_mode

When working with SimpleXML in PHP 5, the four basic rules on how the XML document is accessed are which of the following?

Answers: (choose 4)

Element namespaces are denoted by the ‘namespace’ attribute

converting an element to a string denotes text data

Non-numeric indexes are element attributes

Numeric indexes are elements

Properties denote element iterators

What is wrong with the following code valid in PHP 4 but invalid in PHP 5?

<?php class MyClass { function reassign($var) { $this = $var; }}$a = new MyClass();$b = new MyClass();$a->reassign($b); ?>

Answer…

Reassigning $this in PHP 5 throws a fatal error

It is missing access restrictions (public,private,protected) required in PHP 5

Classes need to implement the OverLoad interface for this behavior in PHP 5

$b is now an object handle and the reassign() method needs to be declared pass-by-reference

What is the output of the following code?

<?php function byReference(&$variable = 5){ echo ++$variable;}byReference();?>

Answer…

No output or error. Variables can not be optional and passed by reference.

5

6

When your error reporting level includes E_STRICT, what will the output of the following code be?

<?phpfunction optionalParam($x = 1, $y = 5, $z){ if ((!$z > 0)) { $z = 1; } for($count = $x; $count < $y; $count+= $z) { echo "#"; }}optionalParam(2,4,2);?>

Answer…

##

Notice

Warning

Syntax Error

#

Which of the following is not a valid PDO DSN?

Answer…

All of the above are valid

mysql:unix_socket=/tmp/mysql.sock;dbname=testdb

oci:dbname=//localhost:1521/mydb

mysql:host=localhost;port=3307;dbname=testdb

sqlite2:/opt/databases/mydb.sq2

What XML technology is used when you mix two different document types in a single XML document?

Answer…

Validators

DTD

Transformations

Namespaces

============================================================

The _________ context variable allows you to define a callback for the stream that will notify your script of certain events during the course of the transaction.

Given the following XML document in a SimpleXML object:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml&quot; xml:lang="en" lang="en"> <head> <title>XML Example</title> </head> <body> <p> Moved to &lt;<a href="http://example.org/">http://www.example.org/</a&gt;.&gt; <br/> </p> </body></html>

Select the proper statement below which will display the HREF attribute of the anchor tag.

Answer…

$sxe->body->p[0]->a[1][‘href’]

$sxe->body->p->a->href

$sxe->body->p->a[‘href’]

$sxe[‘body’][‘p’][0][‘a’][‘href’]

$sxe->body->p[1]->a[‘href’]

<?phpfunction byRef(&$apples){ $apples++;}$oranges = 5;$apples = 5;byRef($oranges);echo "I have $apples apples and $oranges oranges";?>

Answer…

I have 6 apples and 6 oranges

I have 6 apples and 5 oranges

I have 5 apples and 6 oranges

I have 5 apples and 5 oranges

Which of the following is the best way to split a string on the "-=-" pattern?

Answer…

They all are equally proper methods

str_split($string, strpos($string, "-=-"))

preg_split("-=-", $string);

explode("-=-" $string);

===========================================================

The _________ context variable allows you to define a callback for the stream that will notify your script of certain events during the course of the transaction.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?>

<!DOCTYPE html

PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"

"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"&gt;

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml&quot; xml:lang="en" lang="en">

<head>

<title>XML Example</title>

</head>

<body>

<p>

Moved to &lt;<a href="http://example.org/">http://www.example.org/</a&gt;.&gt;

<br/>

</p>

</body>

</html>

Answer…

$sxe->body->p[0]->a[1][‘href’]

$sxe->body->p->a->href

$sxe->body->p->a[‘href’]

$sxe[‘body’][‘p’][0][‘a’][‘href’]

$sxe->body->p[1]->a[‘href’]

Answers: (choose 3)

‘t’ == t

1 === "1time"

"top" == 0

"top" === 0

1 == "1time"

<?php

$fp = fsockopen(‘www.php.net’, 80);

fwrite($fp, "GET / HTTP/1.0\r\nHost: http://www.php.net\r\n");

$data = fread($fp, 8192);

?>

Answer…

The request is blocking and may cause fread() to hang

The HTTP request is malformed

This script should be re-written using fgets() instead of fread()

The request is non-blocking and fread() may miss the response

You cannot use fwrite() with fsockopen()

The ________ method in the PDOStatement class is used to return the next result set in a multi-query statement.

<?php

function a($number)

{

return (b($number) * $number);

}

function b(&$number)

{

++$number;

}

echo a(5);

?>

Answer…

0

36

6

30

5

When connecting to a database using PDO, what must be done to ensure that database credentials are not compromised if the connection were to fail?

Answer…

wrap the PDO DSN in a try/catch block to catch any connection exception

Use constants in the PDO DSN

Place the login credentials in the php.ini file

Disable E_STRICT and E_NOTICE error reporting levels

<?php

$array = array(‘a’ => ‘John’,

‘b’ => ‘Coggeshall’,

‘c’ => array(‘d’ => ‘John’,

‘e’ => ‘Smith’));

function something($array) {

extract($array);

return $c[‘e’];

}

print something($array);

?>

When opening a file in writing mode using the FTP handler, what must be done so that the file will still be written to the server in the event it previously exists?

Answer…

Provide a context for fopen() using stream_context_create()

You must delete the file first before uploading a new file

Configure this behavior in the php.ini file using the ftp.overwrite directive

Open the file using the ‘w+’ mode

Which of the following is not a valid default stream wrapper for PHP 5, assuming OpenSSL is enabled?

Answer…

ftps://

ftp://

sftp://

https://

http://

<?php

$a = 1;

$b = 2.5;

$c = 0xFF;

$d = $b + $c;

$e = $d * $b;

$f = ($d + $e) % $a;

print ($f + $e);

?>

Answer…

643.75

432

643

257

432.75

The method used to create a new node to be added into an XML document using DOM is the ___________ method

<?php

function 1dotEach($n)

{

if ($n > 0)

{

1dotEach(–$n);

echo ".";

}else

{

return $n;

}

}

1dotEach(4);

?>

Answer…

…0

Parse Error: Syntax Error

…..

….

<?php

class MyException extends Exception {}

class AnotherException extends MyException {}

class Foo {

public function something() {

throw new AnotherException();

}

public function somethingElse() {

throw new MyException();

}

}

$a = new Foo();

try {

try {

$a->something();

} catch(AnotherException $e) {

$a->somethingElse();

} catch(MyException $e) {

print "Caught Exception";

}

} catch(Exception $e) {

print "Didn’t catch the Exception!";

}

?>

Answer…

"Caught Exception" followed by "Didn’t catch the Exception!"

A fatal error for an uncaught exception

"Didn’t catch the Exception!"

"Didn’t catch the Exception!" followed by a fatal error

"Caught Exception"

<?php

class myClass {

private $a;

public function __construct() {

$this->a = 10;

}

public function printValue() {

print "The Value is: {$this->a}\n";

}

public function changeValue($val, $obj = null) {

if(is_null($obj)) {

$this->a = $val;

} else {

$obj->a = $val;

}

}

public function getValue() {

return $this->a;

}

}

$obj_one = new myClass();

$obj_two = new myClass();

$obj_one->changeValue(20, $obj_two);

$obj_two->changeValue($obj_two->getValue(), $obj_one);

$obj_two->printValue();

$obj_one->printValue();

?>

Answers: (choose 2)

$a = "Value: $value->getValue()";

$a = "Value: {$value}";

$a = ‘Value: $value’;

$a = "Value: $value";

$a = "Value: {$value[‘val’]}";

Which of the following functions were added to PHP 5 for dealing with arrays?

Answers: (choose 2)

array_intersect_key()

array_unshift()

array_diff_key()

array_merge()

array_slice()

<?php

function byRef(&$apples)

{

$apples++;

}

$oranges = 5;

$apples = 5;

byRef($oranges);

echo "I have $apples apples and $oranges oranges";

?>

===============================================================

function oranges(&$oranges = 17)

{

$oranges .= 1;

}

$apples = 5;

oranges($apples);

echo $apples++;

What does the following function do, when passed two integer values for $p and $q?

<?php

function magic($p, $q) {

return ($q == 0)

? $p

: magic($q, $p % $q);

}

?>

Answer…

Loops infinitely

Switches the values of $p and $q

Determines if they are both even or odd

Determines the greatest common divisor between them

Calculates the modulus between the two

<?php

$array = array(1 => 0, 2, 3, 4);

array_splice($array, 3, count($array), array_merge(array(‘x’), array_slice($array, 3)));

print_r($array);

?>

 

Twitter : @phpknight

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5 comments on “Zend Certification PHP 5 Sample Questions

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